New alternative publishing models are currently being developed that address the increasingly unworkable restrictions of conventional academic publishing. These models at their core rely upon the principle of open access.
I. Guild Publishing Model (GPM)
The Guild Publishing Model is one of several new alternative publishing models for scholarship. It is "based on the practice of academic departments and research institutes publishing their own locally controlled series of working papers, technical reports, research memoranda, and occasional papers" and includes such benefits as:
(Rob Kling, Lisa Spector, and Geoff McKim, "The Guild Model" The Journal of Electronic Publishing August, 2002 Volume 8, Issue 1 <http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=jep;view=text;rgn=main;idno=3336451.0008.101>)
II. Open Access Model
Open access (OA) refers to a much-discussed ideal in scholarly communication: unrestricted global access to scholarship made possible through electronic publication. Debate centers on who will pay to create and maintain this access, and what the impact of such access will be upon intellectual property issues.
There have been three major definitions for open access to date, the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (excerpted below). Collectively these are understood as the BBB (Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin) definition of open access, with which nearly all open access proponents agree.
The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) <http://www.soros.org/openaccess/read.shtml>, dated February 14, 2002, articulates this ideal for scholarly interchange:
An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge. (BOAI)
The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, <http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/bethesda.htm>, dated June 20, 2003, has defined (for the biomedical community) an open access publication as one meeting these two conditions:
The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities <http://oa.mpg.de/lang/en-uk/berlin-prozess/berliner-erklarung/>, dated October 2003, states that
"Establishing open access as a worthwhile procedure ideally requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage". Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw and metadata as well as source materials and digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials. The authors and right holders grant to all users a free, irrevocable, and universal right of access to these contributions and allow their work to be used, reproduced, or disseminated in digital form (provided correct attribution of authorship or copyright owner is given). Together with supplemental materials and the declaration of the right of use, the complete version of the work is to be made accessible in at least one electronic online archive. Such an archive can be maintained by academic institutions and federal or private organizations that subscribe to the principles of open access to and long-term archiving of publication material.
Open access issues are concisely set forth in "Open Access Overview" < http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm> by Peter Suber, editor of Open Access News <http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/fosblog.html>
The Open Access Working Group (OAWG) organized by SPARC “is a group of like-minded organizations that began meeting in the Fall of 2003 to build a framework for collective advocacy of open access to research. The group seeks to build broad-based recognition that the economic and societal benefits of scientific and scholarly research investments are maximized through open access to the results of that research" <http://www.arl.org/sparc/advocacy/oawg.shtml>
Two publishing models for open access exist: Open Access Journals and Open Access Archives (or Institutional Repositories, see section III below). The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) <http://www.doaj.org/> indexes free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals, covering all subjects and languages (with 3573 journals in the directory as of August, 2008, with 1226 searchable at article level).
In addition, current notions of green (self published open access) vs. gold (published open access through author-paid journal fees) are outlined in Stevan Harnad’s, The Access/Impact Problem and the Green and Gold Roads to Open Access: An Update, < http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/15852/>. Finally, the growing SCOAP3 consortium < http://scoap3.org/index.html> facilitates Open Access publishing in High Energy Physics by re-directing subscription money in new ways.
Acknowledgement is made to the Cornell University Library, "Transforming Scholarly Communications and Libraries" for much of the information in this section ("Open Access" - <http://www.library.cornell.edu/scholarlycomm/openaccess/>)
III. Institutional Repository
An Institutional Repository can be defined as "a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution" (Clifford A. Lynch, "The Case for Institutional Repositories" <http://www.arl.org/sparc/bm~doc/ir_final_release_102.pdf>). University of Connecticut’s Digital Commons, <http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/>, is one such institutional repository that holds the intellectual output of the UConn community, and represents away for UConn to organize, store, preserve, and serve up its research in digital form in a single unified location.
IV. E-Print Archive
“E-prints’ are electronic copies of academic research papers. They may take the form of ‘pre-prints’ (papers before they have been refereed) or ‘post-prints’ (after they have been refereed). They may be journal articles, conference papers, book chapters or any other form of research output. An ‘e-print archive’ is simply an online repository of these materials. Typically, an e-print archive is normally made freely available on the web with the aim of ensuring the widest possible dissemination of their contents." (Stephen Pinfield, Mike Gardner and John MacColl, "Setting up an institutional e-print archive" <http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue31/eprint-archives/>).
An E-Print Archive is typically a disciplinary repository, residing at a single institution but servicing scholars everywhere within that academic field. However, an E-Print Archive can also be an institutional repository, preserving and making available the scholarly output of a single institution across its many disciplines.
Example E-Print Archives (disciplinary):
Acknowledgement is made to Brigham Young University’s, “Alternative Publishing Models" < http://burton.byu.edu/SCC/Alternative Publishing Models.html> for much of the information on current alternative publishing models on this site.
Rev. 2012 (MB)