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Information Literacy Instruction

Standard 3: Evaluating Information

"The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system."

Basic Skills

  • Examines and compares information from various sources in order to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and point of view or bias
  • Recognizes prejudice, deception, or manipulation
  • Selects information that provides evidence for the topic
  • Determines probable accuracy by questioning the source of the data, the limitations of the information gathering tools or strategies, and the reasonableness of the conclusions
  • Reads the text and selects main ideas
  • Restates textual concepts in his/her own words and selects data accurately
  • Identifies verbatim material that can be then appropriately quoted
  • Determines whether information satisfies the research or other information need
  • Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether the information contradicts or verifies information used from other sources
  • Draws conclusions based upon information gathered
  • Investigates differing viewpoints encountered in the literature
  • Determines whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints encountered
  • Participates in classroom and other discussions
  • Participates in class-sponsored electronic communication forums designed to encourage discourse on the topic (e.g., email, bulletin boards, chat rooms)
  • Seeks expert opinion through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., interviews, email, listservs)
  • Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if additional information is needed
  • Integrates new information with previous information or knowledge
  • Utilizes computer and other technologies (e.g. spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, and audio or visual equipment) for studying the interaction of ideas and other phenomena
  • Reviews search strategy and incorporates additional concepts as necessary

Advanced Skills

  • Recognizes the cultural, physical, or other context within which the information was created and understands the impact of context on interpreting the information
  • Analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments or methods
  • Recognizes interrelationships among concepts and combines them into potentially useful primary statements with supporting evidence
  • Extends initial synthesis, when possible, at a higher level of abstraction to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information
  • Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques (e.g., simulators, experiments)
  • Reviews information retrieval sources used and expands to include others as needed