Prepared by Sharon Giovenale, October 29, 1999. Revised March 30, 2000
Graduate Degrees: The School of Pharmacy offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science (M.S.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees. Areas of concentration include medicinal chemistry (chemistry applied to the design and study of bioactive substances), pharmaceutics (both physical pharmacy and pharmacokinetics), natural products (biosynthesis and bioactive substance isolation and characterization), pharmacology and toxicology (mechanisms of action of drugs and environmental chemicals), and pharmacy administration (emphasizing managed care pharmacy and pharmacoeconomics). The Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program is administered by the Center for Biochemical Toxicology.
Program Profile 1999 Faculty: 42
Pharm. D. Majors (P1-3): 210
Doctoral Candidates: 60
The School of Pharmacy is a priority program of the University of Connecticut. We are more than half way through the process of adding fourteen new faculty to support the Doctor of Pharmacy professional degree program and replace recently retired research faculty.
Changes in the School of Pharmacy community influence the kind of resources that the Pharmacy Library will provide for students and faculty. The School of Pharmacy is in the process of hiring several new faculty, who will be based in clinical sites, rather than in the Research and Hewitt Buildings. Even within these buildings, there is a demand for desktop access to library resources. There are also many pharmacy undergraduate and graduate students who do not live on campus, but wish to pursue research from home. Faculty and graduate students are performing more library research in their laboratories and offices. These changes in scholarly practice will influence the formats in the Pharmacy Library collections.
The 1999-2000 budget for Pharmacy Library materials is $124,852, with an allocation of $104,852 for serials after various adjustments, including an $8,000 strategic increment, which was added to the base figure. Even with the adjustment, it was necessary to cancel $3,000 in current Pharmacy Library journal subscriptions to offset price increases.
Critical Technologies and the Sciences will receive an $86,000 increase to base in the 1999-2000 budget, which raises this budget to $1,679,000. Taken together with the $222,250 of the Networked information budget devoted to science items, Science and Technology expenditures are now 40% of our total collection budget.
There are many journal, book, and electronic materials, which are used for pharmacy and pharmaceutical science research and are integrated into the Homer Babbidge Library serial, monograph, and electronic collections. A budget allocation for these interdisciplinary items could not be calculated, because of the wide range of disciplines covered.
Some of the electronic networked databases, which were contracted by the University of Connecticut Libraries last year and contributed to access by the School of Pharmacy members, include the following:
A. Characteristics of the Literature
Growth and Inflation
Faced with rapidly growing research literature and double-digit inflation in the costs of its ongoing commitments, the library has both the opportunity and the need to employ a variety of strategies in the delivery of information. Scientific and clinical journal literature has an effective "half life" of five to ten years. The acquisition and electronic distribution of key abstracting and indexing services is a high priority, since these services facilitate rapid identification of relevant materials. Realizing that more of these materials may not be locally available, interlibrary loan and document delivery operations have been automated and supported with collection funds to give you faster and, where possible, more convenient, desk-top service. In future, data from these newly automated operations will be important in determining which journals we need to own locally and which can be delivered from other libraries and document delivery services, in a timely and cost-effective manner.
Ownership of library materials is still an important consideration, especially for our student population and for faculty who are writing grants and performing other tasks under time constraints. Journals and other serially published materials are the basis of research in the sciences. Some research materials in paper and other non-digital formats will remain important for the foreseeable future, especially since the archiving of journal articles in electronic format is not yet assured by many distributors of this format. Book materials will continue to be used by the students and, to a degree, by the faculty. These tangible items will be included in the collections' budgets for the Pharmacy, Babbidge, and other University of Connecticut Libraries.
B. Collection Development
1. Areas of Focus
Material is selected to support the professional and research programs of the School of Pharmacy described under Section I. A. The emphasis on pharmaceutical care is a major factor in purchasing new materials, thus supporting the professional degree program. Reserve materials will continue to be an important component of the collection. The major areas of research will be supported with purchases of appropriate journals, books, electronic access to information, and document delivery/interlibrary loans.
Ownership of materials for course-related work will receive priority attention since students do not have the time or the resources often available to the faculty. Research materials focusing on Pharmacy Practice and the Pharmaceutical Sciences will be supported with subscriptions to appropriate journals, the purchase of books, electronic access to information, and subsidized document delivery/interlibrary loans.
2. Acquisition Strategies
The University of Connecticut uses the Yankee Book Peddler Approval/Slip Plan, which covers U.S. scholarly and trade publishers plus their Canadian and British equivalents which directly distribute in the U.S. The majority of our books are received through this plan on a weekly basis.
Other books and materials are located through the AACP Basic Lists for Libraries Serving Pharmacy Schools, through book reviews in such journals as the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, or through requests from faculty and students.
B. Journals and Media
The Pharmacy and Homer Babbidge Libraries do not generally collect clinical health care journals. Health Reference Center Academic provides many full text electronic articles. Access to clinical materials is readily available through the University of Connecticut Health Center Library at Farmington. Interlibrary loans from the Health Center usually can be obtained within two working days. We are establishing collaborations for acquiring electronic resources, such as Micromedex and full text electronic journals. Increasing electronic networking between the Storrs campus and the Stowe Library allows access to many additional health sources. It is expected that this mutually beneficial relationship will continue to expand in the future, especially given the fact that replication of expensive research titles at both campus locations will occur less and less in the future. The demand for electronic access to full text journals is increasing dramatically.
C. Access Development
In order to help School of Pharmacy researchers locate the research materials they need, the University of Connecticut Libraries will use a combination of local collections, licensed electronic products, subject and program-based web links, current awareness services, and interlibrary loan and document delivery.
1. Relevant Indexes, Abstracts, Library Catalogs and Bibliographic Utilities
We will help you quickly identify needed information by system-wide distribution of: current awareness services, (UnCover, Current Contents), indexes and abstracts (e.g. MEDLINE, SciFinder Scholar, Web of Science), library catalogs and automated and subsidized Document Delivery/Interlibrary Loan.
2. Electronic Journals, Books, and Data
User enthusiasm and economic incentives have caused the library to embrace electronic only access to commercial as well as non-profit journal packages. With the subscription year that begins in January 2004, if a cost savings is available, the libraries are generally converting journal subscriptions that currently bring us both print and electronic copies to electronic-only provision.
We are making this change on a publisher-by-publisher basis. Many of our electronic journals do not come directly by license from the publisher, but instead through aggregator products such as Lexis-Nexis Academic, Dow-Jones, InfoTrac and Wilson Web. The arrangements between aggregators and publishers are constantly in flux. Only when titles are available through multiple aggregators, in a complete and reasonably current version will the cancellation of print be considered.
We have resisted going electronic-only up to now because of concerns about long-term, archival access. Commercial publishers cannot be relied upon to archive their content once the prospect of additional sales approaches nil. Although a solution is far from in place, we believe that technologies now under examination, with funding from the National Science Foundation among others, will yield solutions whereby the largest research libraries will undertake the distributed archiving of digital content in all our interest. We expect that even the largest commercial publishers will, ultimately, cooperate with such an arrangement.
One of the primary goals in the immediate future will be to identify the journals for which we have a subscription but not electronic access, and attempt to add said access. Often the stumbling block for doing so is the license agreement. Additionally, many of the society journals are only now being made available electronically. Often, online access to these titles is free with a print subscription. Retaining access to the already respectable menu of online journals provided by the Library is an ongoing library goal although this effort is becoming increasingly difficult. Because of unsustainable inflation of scholarly journals, electronic only access may be increasingly viewed as a viable option. The question of permanent access to reliable archives of this material is not yet resolved, making such a switch a risky venture.
Furthermore, electronic journals can be hot linked to web based indexes like Web of Science, and the electronic resources listed above. Additionally, the Library’s electronic journal locator, eCompass, facilitates the identification of specific e-journal titles "owned" by the Library (i.e., accessible via the University internet domain, ".uconn.edu".)
3. Document Delivery/Interlibrary Loan
Since journal materials may not be locally available, interlibrary loan and document delivery operations have been automated and supported with collection funds. In future, data from these newly automated operations will be important in determining which journals we need to own locally or access electronically and which can be delivered from other libraries and document delivery services, in a timely and cost-effective manner.
4. Significant Campus or External Resources
As the literature in the sciences expands and journal subscription prices inflate at a rate greater than that of the budget, no one library is able to collect everything. We will rely more on cooperation between libraries. Therefore there will be more cooperative purchasing and licensing arrangements with the University of Connecticut Health Center.
Journals and electronic subscriptions require an ongoing commitment and will be reviewed on an annual basis. As long as for-profit publishers dominate the distribution of the Pharmacy literature, price increases will outrun our resources and the number of journals to which we can continue to subscribe will diminish. Being a priority program means the library will provide periodic increments to the Pharmacy budget. This money can be used to purchase new titles, duplicate existing titles in electronic format, or partially cushion the effects of inflation on the existing list. It will not do anything to change the underlying dynamic described herein. Only our cancellation of unreasonably priced journals and your decision not to publish in such places will lead to change in the system. The School of Pharmacy Library Committee will assist the Librarian in establishing criteria and reviewing requests for new materials each year.